Reduce machinery maintenance costs,
Improve the Health of mine workers,
Provide safe roads to improve production,
Line drainage ditches and containment ponds,
Reduce environmental pollution,
Improve the efficiency and profitability of the mining operation.
Local Community Benefits
AggreBind provides an opportunity for local communities to manufacture bricks/blocks from on-site materials to provide sustainable self-help housing, schools, clinics, roads, etc. Local communities can also be employed to maintain mine access roads using only basic hand tools.
The key to this program is long term sustainability when the mining operations cease. It is vitally important that local communities are consulted, and receive help, in structuring any supporting long term ‘Collective Community Investment and saving structures.’
If the dumps contain steep slopes that a thin surface treatment could be subjected to reverse pressures from below.
If the area has heavy torrential rain then this could also damage a thin (3mm) surface seal.
There is a possibility that high winds could carry untreated material onto a sealed surface. Is there any on-going maintenance program for the treated dumps?
There is a possibility that the surface may have to be sprayed twice if the material is very fine and porous.
Containment dams for contaminated slurry
Ideally the site should be level with no history of flooding or earthquake activity. The dam can be any size but the side and end walls must be at an angle of +/- 45° or less.
The depth should not exceed 2 mtrs.
The depth of the stabilised walls and base will be determined by the depth of the dam.
1 mtr deep stabilized depth 100mm
1.5 mtr deep stabilized depth 125mm
2.0 mtr deep stabilized depth 150mm
Soil Type: Fine soils are preferable with virtually no stone content.
1. The maximum gradient of any surface to be treated.
2. An analysis of the particle size/grading of the material to be sealed.
3. The depth of the proposed treatment.
4. A history of the area in which the mine dump is situated.
5. Annual climatic conditions in the area. Earthquakes etc.
6. Has any of the material to be sealed been used in any construction related applications? If not would they be interested in examining this possibility?
7. Is there water available at the site?
8. Will the treated surface be used by vehicles or pedestrians?
9. What dangerous materials are in the dump?
10. How long does the treatment have to last?
11. Are there any cost indications or budgets for the treatment?
12. What are the local regulations, or standards required, for the treated material?
Stabilizing Soil PROCEDURES:
Excavate the area of the dam.
Rip the surface to the required depth.
Spray with a mixture of 1 part AggreBind mixed with 4 parts water and mix this thoroughly into the soil.
Grade the surface and compact.
Spray the entire surface with a mixture of 1 part AggreBind mixed with 3 parts water.
Wait 3 days before filling the dam.
If required, a small test dam of 1 sq mtr can be made first to ensure that the slurry is being contained.
An additional advantage is that if the dam can be re-used a number of times if it is necessary to drain the dam to remove the solids content. Simply reseal the surfaces of the dam when it is empty.
It is recommended that the User perform local testing and obtain the necessary approvals and acceptance from the Authorities prior to implementation.
Mining Industry: Applications and Dosage Rates
|Product||Application||Layer||AGB-WT Ltrs||AGB-WT Ltrs||AGB-WT Ltrs||Equipment|
|Depth||per sq mtr||per sq mtr||per sq mtr||Ripper||Spraying||Grading||Vibration|
|Stabilising||Surface seal||Dust Control||Compactor|
|AGB-WT||Haul Roads||200mm||0.8 +water||0.25 + water||√||√||√||√|
|Dust Control||0.20 + water||√|
|Parking Areas||150mm||0.45 + water||0.20 + water||√||√||√||√|
|Drainage ditch Lining||10mm||0.25 + water||√|
|1 Ltr AGB-WT + 1 Ltr water + 0.63 mine fines to make a paste||√|
|Apply with a spray or a stiff brush|
Questions on AggreBind Soil Stabilizing and Dust Control Polymer Technologies for Mining
1. Product composition.
Cross-linking styrene acrylic polymer with tracers.
2. How is AggreBind applied?
The mixture of AggreBind concentrate and water can be applied by most standard water trucks and spray equipment.
Stabilization: Basic equipment would be a Grader, Water Truck and Vibration Compactor. Advanced equipment would include Reclaimers, Crushers, milling and grinding attachments and Dual-Drum Vibro Compactors.
Surface Sealing and Dust Control: Standard water truck and spraying equipment. Depending on conditions, a vibratory compactor may be considered.
3. Estimated time necessary for curing, drying, in mining operations?
The waiting time before you can use the road is completely dependent upon ambient temperature and humidity. As soon as the road is ‘dry to the touch’ the road can be used. Roads are often opened within two hours.
AggreBind achieves maximum hardness, full cured, within 28 days.
NOTE: Surface treatments should not be applied if heavy rain/ frost is imminent.
4. Load tolerances?
AggreBind increases the load-bearing
capacity of on-site soils by a factor
4-6, 400% to 600%.
5. Product guarantee?
AggreBind has a 5 Year Product Guarantee. It has been UV tested to 12 years.
6. When the product is applied does it change the visual appearance of the treated surface?
AggreBind AGB-WT is white when applied and dries clear, preserving the soil’s natural color. AggreBind AGB-BT is black when applied and dries black to gray depending on the soil’s natural color.
7. When applying the product are specific pre-application conditions required for the polymer compound and process to perform properly?
The area should be free from the waste, organics and mud. The ideal soil matrix requires a 35% fines content passing through a #200 sieve with no rocks or stones exceeding 20% of the depth. It is recommended to complete the Pre-Installation Evaluation Form.
8. Can AggreBind be applied while water leakage is present?
No, the leak must be sealed first.
9. Presentation of products?
Standard packaging is in 1,000 litre totes. 205 liter drums can be supplied upon request.
10. Is AggreBind environmentally friendly?
Embankment Soil Sealing with AggreBind
EMBANKMENTS – COASTAL EROSION – RESERVOIRS – DEFENSE BUNDS
Embankment sealing with AggreBind soil stabilizer to reduce the growth of grass and other plants.
Solution and installation procedures:
Asphalt is porous and this allows water to penetrate, providing water and nutrients for a wide range of grasses and other plants.
1.0 New Asphalt Surfaces:
Check the porosity of the surface layer.
Prepare a slurry with fine sand/soil mixed with 1 part AggreBind mixed with 3 parts water.
Test that the slurry penetrates the layer to a minimum depth of 25mm.
After 4 hours surface seal with a mixture of 1 part AggreBind mixed with 3 parts water.
Do not install if rain is imminent.
Embankment/Bund Construction AggreBind & Geotextile
AGGREBIND & GEOCELLS IN USE
2.0 Existing soil embankments:
Remove all grass and roots from the layer to be treated.
If possible lightly compact the area with a vibration plate compactor.
Prepare a mixture of 1 part AggreBind mixed with 3 parts water.
Spray this at a rate of 1 ltr per sq mtr over the area and repeat this process again after 4 hours.
Hydrofracking the problem and the Solution
We need the energy but it leaves a legacy of contaminated waste that endangers the environment and creates potential additional health risks to humans and animals.
AggreBind soil stabilization has a solution to contain the contamination and create a new environmentally safe construction material from Hydrofracking waste.
AggreBind encapsulation of contaminated materials
NEW, INNOVATIVE, COST EFFECTIVE, ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY SOLUTIONS, FOR THE TREATMENT AND RE-USE OF CONTAMINATED SOILS AND MINING WASTE MATERIALS
Oil contaminated fine dust, from mining operations in Peru, treated and sealed with AggreBind.
This effectively coats each fine particle with water based, traceable, environmentally safe, styrene acrylic cross linking polymer that seals and binds all.
Samples are sprayed with a solution of 1 part AggreBind to +-3 to 7 parts water subject to material and requirements.
The mixture is applied at a rate that ensured that that the moisture content is at least 10% above Optimum Moisture Content.
The mixture is working thoroughly into the contaminated material to ensure that all the particles are fully coated.
The treated samples were then spread onto a clear non-absorbent plate and allowed to cure and harden at room temperature.
The treated cured samples were then immersed in water for 7-14-and 28 days.
There was no leaching, separation or softening of the treated samples.
AGGREBIND ROAD EVALUATION OF FRACKING WASTE
VOLUME: 150,000 x 42 US Gallons = 6,300,000 Gallons
X 3.7854 = 23,848,020 Ltrs.
ROAD CONSTRUCTION EVALUATION.
Assuming a mix of 9 part fracking waste liquid mixed with 1 part AggreBind applied at a rate of 30ltrs per cubic mtr
|LAYER DEPTH||AGB STABILIZING||AGB TOPSEAL||WASTE LIQUID|
SUMMARY: Based on the above the 23,848,020 ltrs of waste liquid will treat a maximum of 6,275,795 sq mtrs of road = 1046 klm of road 6 mtrs wide x 150mm deep.
EPA will draft standards for treating fracking waste water : Posted: 2:55 pm Thu, October 20, 2011
By Associated Press
ALLENTOWN, Pa. — Federal environmental regulators signaled Thursday they want to increase oversight of the natural gas extraction industry, announcing they will develop national standards for the disposal of polluted wastewaters generated by a drilling technique known as hydraulic fracturing or fracking.
Energy companies have dramatically expanded the use of fracking in recent years, injecting millions of gallons of water, sand and chemical additives to unlock gas in deep shale formations in Pennsylvania, Texas and other states. Its prevalence has raised concerns about the potential impact on water quality and quantity.
There is interest in allowing fracking in Western Maryland and Gov. Martin O’Malley has ordered a study of best practices for drilling and production by August 2012 and a final report assessing environmental impact by August, 2014.
The Environmental Protection Agency announced that it will draft standards for fracking waste water — the briny, chemical-laced water that comes back out of the well — that drillers would have to meet before sending it to treatment plants. The industry in recent months has been recycling much of the waste water or injecting it deep underground, but some of it is sent to plants that are ill-equipped to remove the contaminants.
The new standards would also apply to waste water produced by coal-bed methane drilling, the agency said.
“We can protect the health of American families and communities at the same time we ensure access to all of the important resources that make up our energy economy. The American people expect and deserve nothing less,” said EPA Administrator Lisa P. Jackson.
EPA has largely left it to the states to regulate fracking operations, and environmental groups cheered Thursday’s announcement as a long-overdue first step. The agency is also in the midst of a national study of whether fracking has polluted groundwater and drinking water and its potential future impacts.
“The nation is in the midst of a fracking-fueled gas rush which is generating toxic waste water faster than treatment plants can handle it,” Earthjustice attorney Deborah Goldberg said. “The EPA’s proposal is a common sense solution for this growing public health problem and will help keep poisons out of our rivers, streams, and drinking water.”
Industry groups said waste water disposal is already regulated by the states, with one criticizing the EPA for overreach.
“Pennsylvania’s natural gas developers, as well as its regulators and service companies, are far ahead of EPA’s review of waste water treatment standards for shale gas,” said Lou D’Amico of Pennsylvania Independent Oil & Gas Association.
Drilling companies began flocking to Pennsylvania several years ago to exploit the Marcellus Shale formation, the nation’s largest-known reservoir of natural gas.
While drillers have expanded their efforts to recycle fracking waste water, the administration of Gov. Tom Corbett asked them earlier this year to stop sending millions of barrels of salty, polluted waste water to treatment plants that only partially remove the contaminants before discharging the water into rivers.